In order to control or prevent a disease, the cause of that disease, and the manner in which the disease spreads from one person to another must be understood. If the disease is caused by an organism, the life cycle of that organism must be known. Then the knowledge of the cause of the disease, the mode of infection of human beings by the disease and the life cycle of the causative organism can be applied in the control or prevention of the disease.
Several diseases are spread through water. In this article, some water-borne diseases will be identified and measures that can be taken to control or prevent these diseases will be discussed.
Cholera is a serious disease of the human intestine.
Cholera is caused by the Vibrio cholerne
The symptoms of cholera disease are frequent stooling, dehydration, fever, weakness and stomach upset. If not treated promptly, cholera could lead to death.
How disease is spread
Cholera is passed from one person to another by eating infected food or drinking infected water. The stool of a patient contains infective bacteria. If infected stool passes into a stream, all persons that use the stream water may be at risk. If a cook, who carries cholera bacteria goes to toilet, and handles food without properly washing her hands, those that eat the food may be infected.
Treatment of cholera
Cholera can be treated with antibiotic drugs, prescribed by a medical doctor.
Prevention of cholera
Cholera can be prevented by immunisation of children and adults. It can also be prevented by boiling water before drinking.
Diarrhoea is a disease which can arise in different ways.
Diarrhoea may be caused by overeating, virus infection of food or water, infection of food or water by bacteria, anxiety, stress, allergy to certain foods or food poisoning.
Symptoms of diarrhoea
Symptoms of diarrhoea include cramps, abdominal pains, bloating of the belly, nausea and above all frequent stooling, leading to dehydration.
How the disease is spread
Diarrhea is spread through infection of food or water. The germs that cause diarrhea are passed out with the stool of the patient. If the stool contains germs contaminated food or water, then the disease may be passed to those who eat the contaminated food or drink the contaminated water.
Treatment of diarrhea
Patient of diarrhea should visit their doctors for medical treatment.
Prevention of diarrhea
Diarrhea may be prevented by hygienic handling of food and by drinking clean, safe water (obtained by boiling or water treatment)